How to Make a 6 Layer Nacho Dip

You will need a largish ceramic cake pan, a spatula, a sharp pairing knife, a plate, a can of refried beans, a red pepper, a jar of salsa, a bunch of green onions, a tub of sour cream, and a block of cheddar cheese.

Step 1: Open the refried beans–I like to use Old El Paso refried beans with mild green chili–and spread the beans evenly over the bottom of the pan:


Like so:


Step 2: Wash, halve, and core the red pepper, then dice it finely:

IMG_0573 Spread the peppers in a thin even layer:


Step 3: Add a layer of salsa. I like to use Pace medium chunky.


Step 4: Chop the whole bunch of green onions and spread them in an even layer:


Step 5: Add a layer of sour cream:


Step 6: Add a layer of finely grated cheddar on top, then refrigerate:


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Norse Mythology: Vafthrúdnismál in Modern English

Odin_and_VafþrúðnirThe Vafthrúdnismál  is an Eddic poem found in the Codex Regius. The bulk of the poem consists of a dialog between Odin and the wise giant Vafthrudnir. They ask each other a series of questions to determine each other’s wisdom. Odin ends his questioning by asking for the giant’s prophecies of what will occur at Ragnarok.

“Counsel me, Frigg,” said Odin, “for I long to journey to find Vafthrudnir, and to match my wisdom of ancient times with the wise giant.”

“Father of the hosts,” replied Frigg, “I would stay here at home, where the gods live together. Among all the giants, I know of none equal in might to Vafthrudnir.”

“I have traveled far, and have learned a lot,” said Odin, “and have learned much from the gods. I now want to know how Vafthrudnir lives in his lofty hall.”

“Go safely,” said Frigg, “and return safely again, and may the path you travel be safe! Father of men, let your mind be keen when you speak with the giant.”

Odin went forth and found the hall of Vafthrudnir, the father of Im, and entered it.

“Vafthrudnir, hail!” he said. “I’ve come to your hall to see you, and to first ask if you are merely wise, or have complete wisdom.”

“Who is this man that speaks to me, here in my lofty hall?” asked Vafthrudnir. “You will never go forth from this dwelling unless you are wiser than me.”

“They call me Gagnrath, the wise counselor,” said Odin, “and I am thirsty from the hard journey to your hall. I look for welcome and a gentle greeting, giant, for I have traveled a long way.”

“Then why do you stand on the floor while you speak?” asked Vafthrudnir. “Prove your wisdom, and you shall have a seat in my hall. We shall soon know whose knowledge is greater, the guest’s or the gray sage’s.”

“If a poor man reaches the home of the rich, let him speak wisely or be still,” said Odin. “For to one who speaks with the hard of heart, chattering will always go badly.”

“Speak then, Gagnrath,” said Vafthrudnir, “and make your wisdom known from there on the floor. What is the name of the steed that each morning draws the new day for mankind?”

“Skinfaxi of the shining mane is the steed who for draws the glittering day forth,” said Odin. “He seems the best of horses to heroes, and his mane burns brightly.”

“Tell me, Gagnrath, if you wish to show your wisdom,” asked Vafthrudnir, “what is the name of the steed that from the East brings each night for the noble gods?”

“Hrimfaxi of the frosty mane they name the steed that brings night,” said Odin. “Each morning, foam falls from his bit, and forms the dew in the dales.”

If you are truly wise, Gagnrath,” said Vafthrudnir, “you will tell me the name of the river that runs between the realms of the gods and the giants.”

“Ifing is the river that runs between the realms,” said Odin. “For all time, it flows open, and there is never any ice on that river.”

“I will be convinced of your wisdom,” said Vafthrudnir, “if you tell me the name of the field where Surt and the gracious gods shall meet in battle.”

“Vigrith is the field of battle where the final conflict between Surt and the gods shall take place,” said Odin. “It measures a hundred miles in each way direction, and so are its boundaries set.”

“You are truly wise, guest!” said Vafthrudnir. “Come join me on my bench, and let us speak together. Here in the hall, we will wager our heads on our wisdom.”

Odin joined the giant on his enormous bench.

“First answer me, if your wisdom serves, and you know it, Vafthruthnir,” said Odin.
“In earliest times, where did the earth and the sky come from?”

“The earth was fashioned Out of Ymir’s flesh and the mountains were made of his bones,” said Vafthrudnir. “The sky from the frost-cold giant’s skull, and the ocean out of his blood.”

“Then tell me, if you know,” said Odin, “where the moon and the flaming sun that fare over the world of men came from.”

“Mundilferi fathered the moon and the flaming sun,” said Vafthrudnir, “and each day they run the circle of the heavens to tell the time for men.”

“Third tell me, if you are called wise,” said Odin, “where the day and the night with the narrowing moon come from?”

“Night was the child of the giant Nor. She and her husband Delling were mother and father of the day,” said Vafthrudnir. “The full moon and old one were fashioned by the gods to tell time for men.”

“Fourth tell me,” said Odin, “where winter and the warm summer came from.”

“Vindsval the wind chilled was winter’s father, and Svosuth the gentle fathered the summer,” replied Vafthrudni.

“Fifth tell me which giant was first fashioned in ancient times, and was the eldest of Ymir’s children,” said Odin.

“Winters unmeasured before the earth was made, Bergelmir was born,” replied Vafthrudni. “He was the son of Thrudgelmir, and Aurgelmir’s grandson of old.”

“Sixth, where did Ymir–who you call Aurgelmir–come from long ago?” asked Odin.

“Venom dripped down from the frozen waters of the river Elivagar and waxed until the giant was formed,” replied Vafthrudni. “And from him, our giants’ race descended, and this is why we  are so fierce.”

“Seventh,” asked Odin, “tell me how that first grim giant fathered children, without a giantess to bear them?”

“They say that beneath the arms of the ice giant of ice, a boy and girl grew together,” replied Vafthrudni, “and with his feet, the wise one fashioned a son that had six heads.”

“What is the oldest thing that you remember?” asked Odin. “For your wisdom is great, giant!”

“Bergelmir was born winters unmeasured before the earth was made,” said Vafthrudni. “The first thing I remember was being born in a boat of old.”

“Where does the wind that fares over the waves yet itself is never seen come from?” asked Odin.

“The giant Hræsvelg the corpse eater sits at the end of heaven in the form of an eagle,” said Vafthrudni. “And the wind comes forth from his wings to move o’er the world of men.”

“Tell me, if you know, the fate that is fixed for the gods,” said Odin. “Where did Njorth come from before he came to live with the gods. He is rich with temples and shrines, though he was not born of a god.”

“The wise ones create him in the home of the Vanir did, and gave him as a pledge to the gods,” said Vafthrudni. “At the end of the world he shall return once more to the home to the wise Vanir.”

“Who are the men in Odin’s hall who each day go forth to fight?” asked Odin.

“The heroes brought to Odin’s hall by the Valkyries go forth each day to fight,” said Vafthrudni. “They fell each other, then return from the fight healed, and sit down to feast.”

“Tell me of the runes of the gods and the giants’ race,” said Odin, “for you do indeed tell the truth indeed dost thou tell, and your wisdom is deep, giant!”

“Of the runes of the gods and the giants’ race I call indeed tell you the truth,” said Vafthrudni, “For to each of the nine worlds I have won, even to Niflhel beneath, the land where dead men dwell.”

“Will mankind survive when at the end the long winter comes?” asked Odin.

“Lif and Lifthrasir will hide themselves in Mimir’s wood,” said Vafthrudni. “They will survive on morning dews; such food shall men then find.”

“How will the sun return to the smooth back of the sky after Fenrir has snatched it from its place?” asked Odin.

“Sol, the beaming elf, shall bear a bright daughter before Fenrir snatches her from the sky,” said Vafthrudni. “The maiden will tread her mother’s path when the gods have gone to death.”

Which maidens, so wise of mind, will fare forth over the sea?” asked Odin.

“The maidens shall pass over Mogthrasir’s hill, and they will be followed by three throngs,” said Vafthrudni. “They will protect the dwellers on earth, though they are the descendants of the giants.”

“Who will rule the realm of the gods after the fires of Surt have sunk down?” asked Odin.

“Vidar and Vali shall dwell In the land of the gods after the fires of Surt die down,” said Vafthrudni. “His sons Modi and Magni shall have Mjollnir after Thor the hurler falls in battle.”

“What shall be the doom of Odin, when the gods are destroyed?” asked Odin.

“The wolf shall fell the father of men, and his son Vidar will avenge avenge him,” said Vafthrudni. “He shall tear apart its terrible jaws, and so doing, slay the wolf.”

“What did Odin himself whisper in the ear of his son, before Balder was burned in the bale-fire?” Odin asked.

“No man knows what you said in the ear of your son,” said Vafthrudni.
“With fated mouth, I have told you of the fall of the gods, and given you tales of old. Now have I striven with Odin in knowledge, and ever the wiser you are.”

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Vinyl Grip Strip Flooring is Awesome

If you have a smooth concrete floor, the easiest way to cover it is with vinyl grip strip flooring. All you need is a pair of sheet metal sheers, a pencil, a ruler, and a tape measure. Lay it staggered (like bricks) and leave a 1/8″ gap around the edges. When done, edge the room with base board. Here’s what it looks like after a couple of hours:


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Seven Habits for Effectiveness

seven-habitsStephen Covey, in his book The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People, describes seven principles that he claims, if followed, lead to success.

The first three habits are habits of personal effectiveness:

Be Proactive

Have a bias for action. As a counterpoint, Lean Manufacturing (pioneered by Toyota) encourages delaying decisions as late as possible. Extreme Programming gives the correct balance: proactively work on the most valuable or riskiest thing you can.

Begin with the End in Mind

Know where you are going. This is, in my opinion, the hardest thing to do well. Good to Great‘s principle of the Hedgehog Concept gives some guidance: Find the thing that you have the potential to be the best in the world at doing, that you love to do, and that will bring you the economic rewards that you need or want.

First Things First

What should be worked on first? Here, Covey creates an excellent model: Four quadrants; on one axis, importance, on the other, urgency. Covey urges spending time in the quadrant of important/not urgent, rather than urgent/not important. Again, extreme programming gives a clearer picture: risk mitigation, which doesn’t deliver results, and so may be considered neither important nor urgent, is actually something that is important and needs to be done urgently, as a realized risk can derail important work, and the longer you wait to mitigate the risk, the worse the damage often is.

The next three habits are habits of effective relationships:

Seek First to Understand, Then to Be Understood

While Covey emphasizes the order, the important thing is to ensure that you understand what is expected of you, and that others understand what you are taking responsibility for. Covey offers some techniques for ensuring understanding such as restating the other party’s position until they agree that you have understood it.

Think Win/Win

Thinking win/win often requires not agreeing to do something you don’t believe in. Bureaucracy frequently imposes lose/lose, in that a bureaucratic prescription doesn’t achieve the result intended (e.g. you get security theater, not security), and you are blamed for failing to deliver the expected benefit, usually because you were forced to waste so much effort on following the regulations. Other times, a win can be taking one for the team even though you don’t agree with a decision.


Synergy is hard to achieve and easy to destroy. Bureaucracy and rigid hierarchy are the enemies of synergy. Synergy often involves realizing that someone else has expertise in solving a problem like the one confronting you, and laterally reaching out for help. If doing this is stifled by a command from above to follow the “correct” process, synergy will disappear like smoke.

The final habit influences all the others:

Sharpen the Saw

Sharpening the saw means continuously improving. This means taking time away from production (e.g. delivering new features) to learn, build tools, and remove cruft and refresh tired documentation and processes that are getting in the way. As a good friend of mine once said, when talking about how we could make progress on improvements we’d like to make, “I just do what I know needs to be done”. Personally, I prefer to work in an environment that recognizes the need for sharpening the saw or, as they call it in Japan, kaizen.


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Review of “Captain Marvel”

* * * B


Capn-MarvelCaptain Marvel got a lot of hate due to misandric and racist statements made by it’s star, Brie Larson. I was very unimpressed with the character in Avengers: Endgame. But while I’m not on board with Captain Marvel becoming the new “face of the MCU”, I found her stand alone origin story quite enjoyable.

The story begins with “Vers” being trained by the alien Kree to fight in the war against the shape shifting Skrulls. She is separated from her commander, Yon-Rogg (Jude Law), and captured by the Skrulls, who attempt to read her earliest memories, which turn out to be of Earth.

Vers escapes and falls to Earth, where she teams up with young Nick Fury (Samuel L. Jackson) to rescue Dr. Wendy Lawson (Annette Benning) from the Skrulls who are hunting her, led by Talos (Ben Mendelsohn). She reunites with her best friend, Maria (Lashana Lynch) and Maria’s daughter Monica, and regains memories of her human identity, Carol Danvers.

In the third act, the true villains of the story are revealed, and Danvers must use her powers to fight them and prevent them from destroying the earth. It turns out that the entire conflict has revolved around the tesseract, which is the container of one of the infinity stones.

The film isn’t without its problems, but Larson is not one of them. The story is somewhat heavy handed in its moralizing, but it works. Jackson’s Fury acts as a welcome comedic foil to Larson’s bemused humour. Mendelsohn is excellent, and Law and Benning give solid performances. While not nearly at the level of Avengers: End Game, this is an entertaining movie.

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Norse Mythology: Völuspá in Modern English

Odin_and_the_VölvaVöluspá, or The Wise-Woman’s Prophecy, is an Eddic poem found at the beginning of the Codex Regius. The poem is narrated by a volva (wise-woman) who is consulted by Odin, and ends with her prophecy of Ragnarok.

I ask the holy races, Heimdall’s sons, both high and low, to hear me. You wish, All-father, that I relate the old tales I remember of men long ago. I still remember the giants of ancient times who gave me bread in days gone by. I knew nine worlds in the tree whose mighty roots lie beneath the mould.

Long ago, Ymir lived, when there were neither sea, cool waves, nor sand. The earth did not exist, nor heaven above, only a yawning gap, and no grass anywhere. Then Bur’s sons lifted the level land, and made the mighty realm of Midgard. The sun warmed the stones of the earth from the south, and the ground was green with growing leeks.

The sun, the sister of the moon, cast her right hand over heaven’s rim from the south. She had no knowledge of where her home should be. The moon didn’t know what his strength was. The stars didn’t know their stations.

The gods sought their assembly-seats, and held council. They gave names to noon and twilight, morning and the waning moon, night and evening; they gave numbers to the years. They met at Ithavoll, and built tall shrines and temples from timber. Forges were set, and they smelted ore, wrought tongs, and fashioned tools. At peace in their dwellings, they played at tables of gold. The gods knew no lack until three giant maids, huge and mighty, came to them out of Jotunheim.

The gods once more took their assembly-seats, and held council to determine who should raise the race of dwarfs out of Brimir’s blood and the legs of Blain. There, Motsognir, the mightiest of all the dwarfs, was made, and next, Durin. They made myriad dwarfs in the earth, in the likeness of men. According to Durin, these were Nyi and Nithi, Northri and Suthri, Austri and Vestri, Althjof, Dvalin, Nar and Nain, Niping, Dain, Bifur, Bofur, Bombur, Nori, An and Onar, Ai, Mjothvitnir, Vigg and Gandalf, Vindalf, Thrain, Thekk and Thorin, Thror, Vit and Lit, Nyr and Nyrath, Regin and Rathsvith, Fili, Kili, Fundin, Nali, Heptifili, Hannar, Sviur, Frar, Hornbori,  Fræg and Loni, Aurvang, Jari, Eikinskjaldi, Draupnir and Dolgthrasir, Hor, Haugspori, Hlevang, Gloin, Dori, Ori, Duf, Andvari, Skirfir, Virfir, Skafith, Ai, Alf and Yngvi,  Fjalar and Frosti, Fith and Ginnar. These were the forbearers of Lofar. The race of the dwarfs, Dvalin’s throng, left he rocks and passed through wet lands, seeking a home in the fields of sand.

Then, from the conclave, three came forth from the home of the gods, the mighty and gracious. They found two beings without fate on the land, Ask and Embla, who were empty of strength. They were without souls, sense, heat, motion, or healthy color. Odin gave them souls, Hönir gave them sensibility, and Loki gave them warmth and health.

I know an ash named Yggdrasil that is watered with white water from the dew that falls in the green dales near the well of Urd, and it grows forever. From it came three maidens, strong in wisdom, from their dwelling down beneath the tree. One is called Urd, the next Verdandi, and the third Skuld. On the wood they carved laws, and they allotted life to the sons of men and set their fates.

I remember a war, the first in the world, when the gods smote Gollveig with spears and burned her in the hall  of Odin. She was burned three times burned, and three times born again, and she lives forever. They named the one who had sought their home Heith, the wide seeing witch, wise in magic. She bewitched minds; they were moved by her magic. To evil women, she was a joy.

Odin hurled his spear over the host his spear, and war first came to the world. The wall that surrounded the home of the gods was broken, and the field trodden by the warlike Vanir. Then the gods sought their assembly-seats, and held council as to whether they should give tribute or  whether worship should belong to the Vanir as well.

At this point, Völuspá includes a highly abbreviated version of the story of The Birth of Sleipnir, given in full in the prose Edda. Then the volva continues:

I know that the horn of Heimdall is hidden under the high reaching holy tree. On it, there pours a mighty stream from the All-father’s pledge. Would you know yet more? I sat alone when you sought me, ancient one, terror of gods, and gazed into my eyes. What have you to ask? Why do you come here?

Odin, I know where your eye is hidden. Your eye is hidden deep in the famous well of Mimir. Each morning, Mimir drinks mead your pledge. Do you wish to know more? I had necklaces and rings from Heerfather. My speech was wise, and wisdom was my magic wisdom. I saw far and wide, over all the worlds.

On all sides, I see Valkyries assembling, ready to ride in the ranks of the gods. Skuld bears the shield, and Skogul rides next, with Guth, Hild, Gondul, and Geirskogul. You know the names of your maidens. The Valkyries ready to ride over the earth.

I see that Baldr, the bleeding god, the son of Odin, has his destiny set. Famous and fair, in the lofty fields, full grown and strong, the mistletoe stands. From a branch that seems so slender and fair, a harmful shaft will come that Hod will hurl. But the Vali, the brother of Baldr, will be born before long, and one night fight your son Hod. He will neither wash his hands nor comb his hair before bearing Baldr’s foe to the bale-blaze. But in Fensalir, Frigg will weep sorely for Valhalla’s need. Would you know yet more?

I see Loki, the lover of ill, bound in the wet woods. Sigyn sits by his side, not happy to see her mate. Would you know yet more?

From the east, the river Slith pours through vales poisoned with swords and daggers. Northward, a hall of gold rises in Nithavellir for Sindri’s race. And in Okolnir, another stands, where the giant Brimir has his beer hall.

I see a hall far from the sun, standing on Nastrond, and its doors face north. Venom drips down through the smoke-vent, for serpent wind around its walls. I see treacherous men  and murderers wading through wild rivers, and workers of ill with the wives of men. There Nidhogg sucks the blood of the slain, and the wolf rends men. Would you know yet more?

The old giantess sits in Ironwood in the east, and bears the brood of Fenrir. Among these, one in monster’s guise will soon steal the sun from the sky. He will feed until full on the flesh of the dead, and redden the home of the gods with gore. The sun grows dark, and in summer tare were mighty storms. Would you know yet more?

Eggder the joyous, the giants’ warder, sits on a hill there and plays his harp. Above him, Fjalar, the cock in the bird wood, crows, standing fair and red. Then Gollinkambi crows   to the gods, waking the heroes in Odin’s hall, and beneath the earth, another crow, the rust red bird at the bars of Hel, does the same.

Garm howls loudly before Gnipahellir. His fetters burst, and the wolf Fenrir runs free. I know much, and can see more, of the fate of the gods, the mighty battle. Brothers fight and kill each other, and sisters’ sons stain their kinship.

It is hard on earth, with mighty whoredom. Axe-time, sword-time, shields are sundered. Wind-time, wolf-time, before the world will fall. No man spares another. The sons of Mim move quickly, and fate is heard in the note of the Gjallarhorn. Heimdall blows it loudly, holding the horn aloft. All who are on the road to Hel quake in fear.

Yggdrasil’s ancient limbs shake and shiver on high. The giant wolf is loose. Odin listens to the head of Mim, but the kinsman of Surt will soon slay him. How do the gods fare? How do the elves? All Jotunheim groans. The gods are at council. The dwarfs roar loudly by the doors of stone, masters of the rocks. Would you know yet more?

From the east, Hrym comes with his shield held high. The serpent Jormungandr writhes in giant wrath, twisting over the waves. The tawny eagle Hræsvelg gnaws corpses, screaming. Over the sea from the north, the ship Naglfar sails with the people of Hel. Loki stands at the helm. Wild men follow after the wolf Fenrir, and Loki, the brother of Byleist, goes with them.

Surt fares from the south with fire, the scourge of branches, the sun of the battle gods shining from his sword. The crags are sundered, the giant women sink, the dead throng the way to Hel-way, and heaven is cloven. Frigg is hurt again as Odin fares out to fight with the wolf Fenrir, and Freyr, Beli’s fair slayer, seeks out Surt. For there Odin, the joy of Frigg, must fall. Then Odin’s mighty son, Vidar, comes to fight  with the foaming wolf. He thrusts his sword into the heart of Fenrir, the giant’s son, and his father is avenged.

Thor, the son of Jord, advances, and the bright snake gapes to heaven above. Odin’s son fights against the serpent Jormungandr. In anger, the warder of earth strikes, and forth from their homes, all men must flee. Thor staggers nine paces fares and, slain by the serpent, sinks fearlessly into death.

The sun turns black, the earth sinks in the sea, and the hot stars whirl down from heaven. The steam grows fierce grows the steam and the life-feeding flame leaps high about heaven itself.

Now I see the earth rise anew from the waves again, all green once more. The cataracts fall, and the eagle flies, and he catches fish beneath the cliffs. The gods meet together in Ithavoll, and talk of Jormungandr, the terrible girdler of earth. They remember the mighty past and the ancient runes of the Ruler of Gods.

In wondrous beauty, once again the golden tables that the gods owned in the days of old, stand amid the grass. Unsown fields bear ripened fruit, all ills grow better, and Baldr returns. Baldr and Hod dwell in Odin’s battle hall, Valhalla, with the mighty gods. Would you know yet more?

Hönir wins the prophetic wand, and the sons of the brothers of Odin abide in Vindheim. Would you know yet more?

I see a hall more fair than the sun, roofed with gold, standing in Gimle. There the righteous rulers will dwell in happiness forever. There a mighty lord will comes on high, all power to hold, all lands to rule.

From below the dragon of darkness, Nidhogg, comes forth, flying from Nithafjoll. The bright serpent bears the bodies of men on his wings. But now must I sink.

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The Death Penalty vs. Abortion

death-penalty.pngTim Pool just published the video Bill Barr has Just Reinstated the Federal Death Penalty and Ordered 5 Executions on his bitchute/youtube channel. He immediately came under fire because he’s against capital punishment but largely pro-choice. One commenter claimed that his stance was cognitively dissonant (i.e. contradictory). I disagree, and largely agree with Pool, though I’d say I’m far less pro-choice than he is.

The big difference between the death penalty and abortion is that the death penalty is executed by the state, while abortion’s are performed by a doctor, at a patient’s request. I don’t believe that the state can be trusted with my life. I would put slightly more faith in a doctor to do the right thing by an unborn child.

My big problem with capital punishment is that death is such a final punishment that even guilt beyond a reasonable doubt seems insufficient to me. There are many well documented cases of men who were wrongfully convicted and later exonerated who, had they been subject to the death penalty, would have been murdered by the state. Killing, other than in self defense, is immoral no matter who does it.

On the other hand, if a doctor believes that a pregnancy is putting the life of a mother at risk, I find it hard to censure the doctor for trying to do the least harm to the mother by killing her unborn child. While the child has no say in the matter, weighing a good chance that the mother will survive vs. a good chance that both mother and child will die seems like something that should be left to a medical professional.

So what should be done with someone you’re almost certain has committed murder, and might be expected to do so again? Does the state have the right to decide on our behalf to spend our money to incarcerate a murderer for life? In the past, communities would simply banish murderers, but that left the murderer free to kill again, albeit in someone else’s town. Is there a solution to the problem that doesn’t give the state the power to commit murder?

A two strike rule seems to be a step in the right direction, in that the guilty party is less likely to be wrongly convicted twice, and has shown that they were not deterred from committing crime by their first prison term. In the case of murder, this means that the death of the second victim could have been prevented, but assuming that the murderer’s previous crime wasn’t a capital crime, that would be true in any case.

If you believe the right’s of the innocent outweigh the rights of a murderer, its hard to argue that either the murderer must be prevented from committing further crimes by incarceration or that they should be executed. Perhaps this is one of the rare cases where handing power to the state really does make sense. Maybe a jury trial that finds someone guilty of murder and sees no chance of their being able to rejoin society in future should be able to refer a decision on the death penalty to a higher court.


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