The second essay in “The Triumph of Elohim”, “The Rise of Yahweh in Judahite and Israelite Religion” by Herbert Niehr, outlines the development of Yahweh from a local weather god to the creator of the cosmos and one true god of the Abrahamic religions. This article focuses on archaeological and non-biblical sources. Here’s my summary of his findings:
Yahweh originated in Midia and Edom as a local weather god, like Hadad in Syria or Baal in Palestine. Starting around 1000 BC, Yahweh became the dynastic god of Jerusalem and Samaria. Inscriptions from 800 BC mention Yahweh and his consort, Asherah. An inscription from 700 BC declares Yahweh to be the god of Judah and Jerusalem.
An inscription from 850 BC states that Yahweh was the supreme god of Israel (Samaria and Transjordan). Another inscription mentions Yahweh as the god of Samaria, along with his consort Asherah. The Elephantine scrolls, from 500 BC, mention the Aramean goddess Anat as the consort of Yahweh, and give Yahweh the title ‘Lord of the Heavens’. Amulets from 600 BC equate Yahweh with the sun.